Ever since I qualified as a trainer this has been a topic that has come up time and time again.
Will eating too little cause weight loss to plateau? Is it possible to gain weight if calories are too low?
I wanted to present the evidence and establish the facts of what I see to be a pretty fundamental misunderstanding from both the general public and exercise professionals.
First things first, lets talk about calories and weight loss. If you are not losing weight it means you are eating too many calories. This is an unpopular viewpoint, but it is the truth. Your body just like everyone elses adheres to the laws of thermodynamics: energy cant be created or destroyed. If youre eating more calories that you need, your body will likely store the excess, making you gain weight. If youre eating fewer calories than your body needs, your body raids its energy stores, making you lose weight.
Calories are units of energy. A small calorie (cal) is about the amount of energy needed to heat 1ml of water by 1°C. A large calorie (kcal) is equal to 1000 small calories. When people talk about calories in food, they are almost always talking about large calories, and just to confuse things, they are commonly abbreviated to cals.
Our knowledge of calories in food dates to the mid-nineteenth century and owes a lot to German scientist Max Rubner. He very carefully measured the heat generated when burning the three major macronutrients in food: carbohydrates, protein and fat. His results are still used today to calculate the calorie content of our food.
We can measure the energy our body burns in calories. Our bodies are complex systems, and there are several factors which influence total daily energy expenditure:
These four factors add up to total energy expenditure.
If your calorie expenditure is greater than calorie intake, then you use stored energy to make up the difference, meaning you will lose weight.
If your calorie expenditure is less than your calorie intake then your body will store the excess energy as glycogen and fat, meaning you gain weight.
It is common for people to blame a slow metabolism for a failure to lose weight. However, while some people do have faster metabolisms than other people, the difference is small. If you compare a person with a very slow metabolism (fewer than 1 in 100 people) to one with a very fast metabolism (fewer than 1 in 100), the difference between the BMR of these individuals could be as much as 400cals, or about a large slice of pizza. However, most people have a BMR within about 50cals of the average, the equivalent of less than a teaspoon of peanut butter, or an apple.
It is commonly said that if you eat too few calories, your metabolism will slow down to a point where you no longer lose weight. Part of this is true: as you lose weight your energy expenditure does drop. However, consuming too few calories cannot and will not cause you to gain weight. This is simply impossible. If your body is getting too few calories to operate, it will use your energy stores and you will lose weight.
Losing weight is accompanied by metabolic changes:
So, as you lose weight, you need fewer calories. Its not a massive effect, but its significant.
A calorie deficit will fail to work when it is no longer a calorie deficit:
Lets say you decide to cut your calories from 2000cals a day to 1700cals. You stick to it for 4 months and lose an impressive 6kg. But then your stop losing weight.
This is not starvation mode. Youve made a modest cut to your calorie input and lost a steady 300g a week. Whats happened is your body now requires less energy to function. 1700cals is no longer a calorie deficit for you. If you want to keep losing weight, its time to drop your calorie intake again, or increase your exercise.
If you are on a 20% calorie deficit, you should lose weight at a steady and safe rate. If you set your target too low, say a 50% deficit, you will lose weight, but there will be some other side-effects:
What about the difference between carbohydrates, protein and fat?
There is good evidence that eating a low-carbohydrate diet encourages more rapid weight loss. However, if you are in a calorie deficit, you will lose weight regardless of how many of your calories come from carbs, protein and fat.
Lets say you calculate your maintenance calories accurately, based on your age, current weight, gender and height. You keep track of your calorie intake and use an online tool to calculate how many calories youre burning on your weekend bike ride and Wednesday afternoon jog. You work out that you should eat 2200cals a day to maintain weight, so you try to eat 1800cals, a 400cal deficit. You keep this up for 1 month but youre not losing weight. Whats happening?
Its easy to blame a slow metabolism or starvation mode, but theres a lot of pitfalls that could be causing the problem.
Your body weight changes by as much as 2-3kg a day. Youre unlikely to have lost more than 1.5kg in a month with a 400cal daily deficit, so it might be hard to detect this change. Try weighing yourself every day and taking a weekly average. It can be bad for your health to lose weight too quickly, so try to be sure youre not losing weight before changing your diet. And give it time. You shouldnt expect to see any obvious results from a diet until about a month in.
How many calories is your exercise routine really burning?
Most tools to calculate exercise overestimate calories burned, sometimes by as much as 100%. Extremely high intensity exercise can burn an additional 600cals an hour for an average person. Moderate intensity exercise may be around 400cals. So, if you go for a 2-hour gentle cycle and your heart-rate monitor watch tells you youve just burned 2000cals, this is almost certainly wrong.
Do you really know how many calories you are eating?
Most people underestimate their calorie intake even when keeping a food diary. This mistake is commonly as much as 20-30%, which in this case could account for a 500cal error. What about that drizzle of olive oil over your salad, or the mayonnaise with your potatoes? Did you really have a teaspoon of peanut butter on your toast, or was it a heaped teaspoon? Also, dont rely on the calories quoted by restaurants and takeaways. These are often underestimates.
Heres some sample calories:
If you are not losing weight, you are probably eating too much. If you think you are in a calorie deficit but are not losing weight, it is probably because: